of bad sanitation and long hours, almost universal in 
the factories where children are employed. 
The power of the Illinois inspectors, so far as they 
have any power to require that only healthy children 
shall be employed, and these only in safe and healthy 
places, is found in § 4 of the Workshop and Factories 
Act, the last clause, already quoted. What may be 
accomplished under this section is indicated by the 
following report concerning medical examinations in 
the inspector's office, made for the boys by Dr. Bayard 
Holmes, of • the College of Physicians and Surgeons ; 
and for the girls by Dr. Josephine Milligan, resident 
physician at Hull House : — 
• During four months 135 factory children were given 
medical examinations in the office. The inspectors 
required these children to secure health certificates be- 
cause they were undersized, or seemed to be ill, or were 
working in unwholesome shops, or at dangerous occupa- 
tions. They were children sworn by their parents to 
be fourteen years of age, or over. 
Each child was weighed with and without clothing ; 
had eyes and ears tested ; heart, lungs, skin, spine, joints, 
and nails examined ; and forty measurements taken. 
Of the 135 children, 72 were found sufficiently normal 
to be allowed to continue work. Of the 63 refused cer- 
tificates, 53 were not allowed to work at all, and 10 
were stopped working at unwholesome trades, as tobacco- 
stripping, grinding in cutlery factory, running machines 
by foot-power, and crimping cans ; these were advised 
to look for more wholesome work. 
Of those to whom certificates were refused, 29 were 
undersized, otherwise normal ; i.e., the parents had