child is working. Otherwise his certificate may be worse 
than valueless, and work a positive injury to a child 
whom the inspectors are trying to save from an injuri- 
ous occupation. Thus, a healthy child may wish to enter 
a cracker bakery ; and unless the physician visits it, and 
sees the dwarfish boys slowly roasting before the ovens, 
in the midst of unguarded belting and shafting, a danger 
to health which men refuse to incur, he may be inclined 
to grant the certificate, and thereby deprive the child of 
the only safeguard to health which the State affords 
him. Similar danger exists in regard to tobacco, picture- 
frame, box, metal-stamping, and wood-working factories. 
The following example of the reckless issuance of cer- 
tificates is of interest here, the child being a resident of 
the nineteenth ward, employed in this ward, and receiving 
the certificates to be subsequently quoted from physicians 
living and practising in this ward : — 
Annie Cihlar, a delicate-looking little girl, was found 
working at 144 West Taylor Street, in a badly ventilated 
tailor-shop, in a building in the rear of a city lot, with 
windows on alley, and a tenement house in front. The 
bad location and atmosphere of the shop, and the stoop- 
ing position of the child over her work, led the inspector 
to demand a health certificate. Examination at the in- 
spector's office revealed rachitis and an antero-posterior 
curvature of the spine, one shoulder an inch higher than 
the other, and the child decidedly below the standard 
weight. Dr. Milligan indorsed upon the age affidavit: 
" It is my opinion this child is physically incapable of 
working in any tailor-shop." The employer was notified 
to discharge the child. A few days later she was found 
at work in the same place, and the contractor produced