might be found in the fact that the leading wholesale 
houses of the prosperous and influential Jews of Chicago 
mark the former site of the homes of the refugees from 
Germany ; while the earlier " houses of prayer," on South 
Clark Street, have literally yielded to "dens of thieves." 
The dispersion, which took place as a result of the fire 
of 1871, was already presaged by the removal of many 
of the Jewish families to the West Side, as is indicated 
by the purchase of a church building on Desplaines 
Street, between Madison and Washington Streets, in 
1864, by the newly organized Zion Congregation, and by 
their removal in 1869 to an edifice of their own, at the 
corner of Jackson and Sangamon Streets. Previous to 
1871 all, of the synagogues, with one exception, were 
those of German Jews ; and the exception was that of 
a Prussian Polish Congregation, B'nai Sholom (Sons 
of Peace). Although there were reported to be 12,000 
Jews in Chicago in 1868, the recent growth of the pres- 
ent Ghetto is seen when it is remembered that it is 
composed largely of Russians ; while at the time of this 
estimate of the Jewish population, there were in Chicago 
but 118 Russians of all faiths. The last item of inter- 
est in the present discussion, which relates to the colony 
before the fire, is the organization in 1868 of the West- 
ern Hebrew Christian Brotherhood. This is worthy 
of passing note, this proselyting propaganda of zealous 
Christians, because almost every effort to reach the 
" chosen people " as a people, and not as individuals, has 
been by narrow-minded theologians, who have been " in- 
stant in season and out of season," even to the extent of 
using the most pernicious methods of bribery in secur- 
ing converts, thereby producing a social injury which it