pressed down and running over. In all but the severest 
weather the streets swarm with children day and night. 
On bright days groups of adults join the multitude, espe- 
cially on Saturday and Sunday, or on the Jewish holi- 
days. In bad weather the steaming windows show the 
over-crowded rooms within. A morning walk impresses 
one with the density of the population, but an evening 
visit reveals a hive. As has been said before, how- 
ever, this is not unlike other poor quarters. There are, 
though, some physical facts startling in their contrast 
with other districts. An interesting comparison may 
be made between the vital statistics of the seventh, six- 
teenth, and nineteenth wards. The figures of the Board 
of Health are not minute enough to enable one to com- 
pare smaller areas than wards, but these are sufficiently 
instructive. The seventh ward contains the largest Jew- 
ish population in the city. The sixteenth ward's popu- 
lation is chiefly Polish and German, which elements are 
also in the seventh ward ; but in the latter they are 
also Jews. In the nineteenth ward, which adjoins the 
seventh on the north, and which in a homogeneous 
population could not be vitally different from it, there 
are some Jews, some Germans, many Italians, many 
Irish, and representatives of several other nationalities. 
The vital statistics ought not to be very different be- 
tween neighboring wards with similar material charac- 
teristics, nor between wards composed of people from 
the same European countries and of the same social 
stratum : but the following figures speak for themselves. 
In each thousand of the population there are : —