the renewed persecutions. For eighteen months the 
Society in Aid of Russian Refugees succeeded in help- 
ing new arrivals, ignorant of language and customs, and 
without friends. The chief efforts of the society were 
directed to sending the refugees to homes in smaller 
cities or in the country. Nearly 1,000 persons were dis- 
tributed in twenty-four States and Territories, of whom 
129 returned unable to find satisfactory employment. 
The officers of the organization also found employment 
for over 500 persons during the brief existence of the 
society. The work thus accomplished during an emer- 
gency is a pertinent suggestion of a needful enterprise 
in Chicago and other large cities. The emigration so- 
cieties of England accomplish a work which is, if pos- 
sible, even more needed in the rapidly growing American 
The chief labor organizations of the Jews are the 
Cigarmakers' Union and the Cloakmakers' Union. 
While these organizations are taxed to keep wages 
above starvation level, they are composed of an un- 
usually intelligent set of men, when their wages and 
hours are considered. 
Social. The social institutions of the Ghetto are not 
numerous, but for the most part more helpful than simi- 
lar institutions in other districts. Perhaps the most in- 
teresting is the latest acquisition, the Maxwell Street 
Settlement. At the suggestion of a prominent Jewish 
rabbi, two young college-bred Jews have taken up resi- 
dence in the heart of the Ghetto. Another resident has 
been added since the work commenced. A private resi- 
dence of a dozen rooms was secured, which has served 
their purpose during the initial stages of the work ; but