was a model in regard to its sanitary arrangements, and 
the sole complaint of the girls was of the long hours and 
low rate of wages. The strike which followed the for- 
mation of the union was wholly unsuccessful ; but the 
union formed then has thriven ever since, and has lately 
grown so strong that it has recently succeeded in secur- 
ing the adoption of the national labels. 
The cloakmakers were organized at Hull-House in the 
spring of 1892. Wages had been steadily falling, and 
there was great depression among the workers of the 
trade. The number of employees in the inside shops 
was being rapidly reduced, and the work of the entire 
trade handed over to the sweaters. The union among 
the men numbered two hundred ; but the skilled workers 
were being rapidly supplanted by untrained women, who 
had no conscience in regard to the wages they accepted. 
The men had urged organization for several years, 
but were unable to secure it among the women. One 
apparently insurmountable obstacle had been the impos- 
sibility of securing any room, save one over a saloon, that 
was large enough and cheap enough for a general meet- 
ing. To a saloon hall the women had steadfastly 
refused to go, save once, when, under the pressure of a 
strike, the girls in a certain shop had met with the men 
from the same shop, over one of the more decent saloons, 
only to be upbraided by their families upon their return 
home. They of course refused ever to go again. Tho 
first meeting at Hull-House was composed of men and 
girls, and two or three of the residents. The meeting 
was a revelation to all present. The men, perhaps forty 
in number, were Russian-Jewish tailors, many of whom 
could command not even broken English. They were