190 HULL—HOUSE MAPS AND PAPERS. 
ill-dressed and grimy, suspicious that Hull-House was a 
spy in the service of the capitalists. They were skilled 
workers, easily superior to the girls when sewing on a 
cloak, but shamefaced and constrained in meeting with 
them. The American-Irish girls were well-dressed, and 
comparatively at ease. They felt chaperoned by the 
presence of the residents, and talked volubly among 
themselves. These two sets of people were held to- 
gether only by the pressure upon their trade. They 
were separated by strong racial differences, by language, 
by nationality, by religion, by mode of life, by every 
possible social distinction. The interpreter stood be- 
tween the two sides of the room, somewhat helpless. 
He was clear upon the economic necessity for combina- 
tion ; he realized the mutual interdependence ; but he 
was baffled by the social aspect of the situation. The 
residents felt that between these men and girls was a 
deeper gulf than the much-talked of " chasm " between 
the favored and unfavored classes. The working-girls 
before them, who were being forced to cross such a 
gulf, had a positive advantage over the cultivated girl 
who consciously, and sometimes heroically, crosses the 
" chasm " to join hands with her working sisters. 
There was much less difference of any sort between 
the residents and working-girls than between the men 
and girls of the same trade. It was a spectacle only to 
be found in an American city, under the latest condi- 
tions of trade-life. Working-people among themselves 
are being forced into a social democracy from the pres- 
sure of the economic situation. It presents an educa- 
ting and broadening aspect of no small value. 
The Woman's Cloakmakers' Union has never been