have already reached the higher development, but the 
unions among the less intelligent and less skilled work- 
men are still belligerent and organized on a military 
basis, and unfortunately give color to the entire move- 
It is doubtless true that men who work excessively 
certain weeks in the year, and bear enforced idleness, 
harassed by a fear of starvation, during certain other 
weeks, as the lumber-shovers and garment-workers do, 
are too far from that regulated life and sanity of mind 
in which the quiet inculcation of moral principle is pos- 
sible. It is also doubtless true that a more uniform 
leisure and a calmer temper of mind will have to be 
secured before the sense of injury ceases to be an absorb- 
ing emotion. The labor movement is bound, therefore, 
to work for shorter hours and increased wages and regu- 
larity of work, that education and moral reform may 
come to the individual laborer ; that association may be 
put upon larger principles, and assume the higher fra- 
ternal aspect. But it does not want to lose sight of the 
end in securing the means, nor assume success, nor even 
necessarily the beginnings of success, when these first 
aims are attained. It is easy to make this mistake. 
The workingman is born and reared in a certain dis- 
comfort which he is sure the rich man does not share 
with him. He feels constantly the restriction which 
comes from untrained power ; he realizes that his best 
efforts are destined to go round and round in a circle 
circumscribed by his industrial opportunity, and it is 
inevitable that he should over-estimate the possession 
of wealth, of leisure, and of education. It is almost 
impossible for him to keep his sense of proportion.