CHAPTER VIII 
T was while Cowperwood was working under Rivers 
I for Tighe that he learned all those subtleties of the 
stock-market system which afterward stood him in such 
good stead. By degrees he picked up all the techni- 
calities of the situation, and all the terminology, though 
the latter was not more than an hour's lesson the first 
day, given him succinctly by Rivers. A "bull," he 
learned, was one who bought in anticipation of a higher 
price to come; and if he was "loaded up" with a "line" 
of stocks he was said to be "long." He sold to "realize" 
his profit, or if his margins were exhausted he was "wiped 
out." A "bear" was one who sold stocks which most 
frequently he did not have, in anticipation of a lower 
price, at which he could buy and satisfy his previous sales. 
He was "short" when he had sold what he did not own, 
and he "covered" when he bought to satisfy his sales and 
to realize his profits or to protect himself against further 
loss in case prices advanced instead of declining. He was 
caught in a "corner" when he found that he could not 
buy in order to make good the stock he had borrowed for 
delivery and the return of which had been demanded. 
He was then obliged to settle practically at a price fixed 
by those to whom he and other " shorts" had sold. 
Tighe, Cowperwood learned from Rivers, carried a ca.. 
tam line of stocks for certain people for whom he bought 
and sold. The latter did not take this boy into his con. 
fidence very much at first; but he gave him some intet. 
esting bits of information. Certain houses were handling 
certain stocks, certain others were buying certain othets. 
He was to watch their men. The general run of things 
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