condition of the Republican party at this time in 
Philadelphia, its relationship to George W. Stener, 
Edward Malia Butler, Henry A. Mollenhauer, Senator 
Mark Simpson, and others, will have to be briefly in- 
dicated here, in order to foreshadow Cowperwood's actual 
situation. Butler, as we have seen, was normally in- 
terested in and friendly to Cowperwood. George 
W. Stener was Cowperwood's tool. Henry A. Mollen- 
hauer and Senator Simpson were strong rivals of Butler 
in the control of city affairs. Mr. Simpson represented 
the Republican control of the State legislature, which 
could dictate to the city if necessary, making new elec- 
tion laws, revising the city charter, starting political in- 
vestigations, and the like. He had many influential 
newspapers, corporations, banks, and the like at his beck 
and call. Mr. Mollenhauer represented the Germans, 
some Americans, and some large stable corporations—a 
very solid and respectable man. All three were strong, 
able, and dangerous politically. The two latter counted 
on Butler's influence, particularly with the Irish, and a 
certain number of ward leaders and Catholic politicians 
and laymen, who were as loyal to him as though he were 
a part of the church itsf. Butler's return to these fol- 
lowers was protection, influence, aid, and good-will gen- 
erally. The city's return to him, via Mollenhauer and 
Simpson, was contracts—fat ones—street-paving, bridges, 
viaducts, sewers. And in order for him to get these 
contracts the affairs of the Republican party, of which 
he was a beneficiary as well as a leader, must be kept 
reasonably straight. At the same time it was no more