gave them added independence. From the first their work has 
been supplemental to, rather than competitive with, that of man. 
Between the years 1815-183o we may date the establishment 
of women wage-earners as a definite economic factor. And as 
the years have gone on the number of women workers has in- 
The building of factories once commenced, the work con- 
tinued at a rapid rate. The first ' large factory with improved 
machinery was built at Pawtucket, R.I., in 179o. Another mill was 
erected in the same state in 1705, and two more in Massachusetts 
in 18oz and 1803. In the next three years ten were built in 
Rhode Island, and one in Connecticut. By the end of 18o9 
eighty-seven additional mills had been put up so that a great 
many were in operation in the opening years of the present cen- 
tury. From that time on the spread of the factory system has 
been abnormally rapid. It has gone hand in hand with the 
development of the country's great resources. As early as 1813 
we find in Waltham, Mass., the first factory in the world that 
combined under one roof every process of converting raw cotton 
into finished cloth. It will be noticed that here we have the 
birth of the great manufactories about the same time that agita- 
tion for remedial legislation' was sweeping over England an 
agitation which half a century later was to stir this country to 
the depths. 
With the growth of the factory system came conditionP 
which were a menace to the well being of the nation, but it was 
long before intelligent citizens could be led to see that brutal 
treatment of women and children together with long hours in 
unsanitary mills was a danger to the country. In the decade 
between 183o-184o we have accounts of Vile sanitary conditions,