roc° THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY 
on the one hand, and preventing bad legislation on the other. 
Thirty-one of the states of the Union have well-equipped labor 
bureaus at the present time besides the national bureau. 
In 1865 the Massachusetts legislature deemed it expedient 
to take action in the matter of child labor, and prohibited the 
employment of those under ten years and limited the hours of 
labor of those from ten to fourteen years to eight per day. 
This was improved by later acts (1867). 
In 1870 the war for the reduction of hours of labor began 
again, and was continued until the reform forces came off vic- 
tormns in 1874. But the concessions of this year did not entirely 
quiet the agitation, and the good movement went on until we 
now have the very good code of laws summarized elsewhere. 
The history of the Massachusetts efforts is in a measure the 
history of all the states. Ia the matter of legislation, the more 
helpless classes have first come under jurisdiction, and later 
those next dependent. Naturally the children received attention 
first, and then we find special interest aroused in the work of 
women. Evil conditions yet prevail, but much has been done 
to mitigate the miseries of the factory women. 
In many of the states the first factory acts were sanitary 
as while others secured a shorter working day. Long
 
hours of toil toil in unsanitary factories are known to be detrimental 
to both health and morals, and lack of care for either fills the 
country with a worse than useless working population. 
Having viewed the rise of the movement, we are now in a 
position to study the detailed legislation of the various states. 
This is taken up under the following heads 
r. Inspection. 2. Hours of labor. 3. Sanitary regulations. 
4. Seats provided. 
ASSACHUS.15. 
Inspection.—This was provided in 1877. 
Hours of labor.— 7. No children under eighteen years of age 
and no women may be employed more than ten hours per day 
or sixty hours per week, except when necessary to make repairs